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Officially known as the Hellenic Republic, Greece is a mountainous peninsula located in southeastern Europe, between the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas.With a landmass of 51,000 square miles (132,100 square kilometers), Greece is bordered to the north by Bulgaria and Macedonia.After the war Greece regained much of the territory it had lost to the Ottoman Empire.But in 1921 Greece began a war against the Turks in Asia Minor and suffered a crushing defeat in 1922.Socrates, Plato, Xenophon, Herodotus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Aeschylus came into prominence, and in 432 and a plague that raged through Athens in 430 contributed to bring the Golden Age to an end.
Papadopoulos declared Greece a republic in 1973 and put an end to the monarchy before his government was overthrown.
In November 1974 Greece held its first free elections in more than a decade.
Parliament adopted a new constitution in 1975, and a civilian government was established.
In 1952 Greece joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and also granted women the right to vote and to hold political office.
During 1952 to 1963 Alexander Papagos and Konstantinos Karamanlis each held the office of prime minister.