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Finally, my greatest debt of gratitude, for their unfaltering support and faith in me, goes to my beloved family and friends, especially my husband Steven, and our son Leo, who gave me the strength to complete this project. 6 Abbreviations and Conventions BHV BL BNE BNF BNP BPC Dicc de Aut D-R DRAE HSA JRL RB Vulg WL València, Biblioteca Històrica London, British Library Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional de España Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France Lisboa, Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal Córdoba, Biblioteca Provincial Diccionario de la lengua castellana [Diccionario de autoridades], 6 vols (Madrid: Real Academia Española, ), online at Douay-Rheims Bible: The Holie Bible, Faithfully Translated into English out of the Authentical Latin, trans.
by Gregory Martin & others, 3 vols (Rhemes: John Fogny, 1582; Doway: Laurence Kellam, ), at New York, Hispanic Society of America Manchester, John Rylands Library Madrid, Real Biblioteca Biblia Sacra iuxta Vulgatam versionem, ed. by Roger Gryson (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1994) London, Wellcome Library Sources are referred to using the author-date system.
However, where appropriate, it has been extended to include also literary correspondence, book inventories, and texts, which despite being published anonymously, have been shown to be by women.
The study is divided into two parts wherein extant sources have been selected and arranged chronologically and by theme, rather than by author.
5 Why, then, do women authors continue to be largely excluded from general studies on the book trade, despite important work aimed at 4 In UK universities the most studied authors in French are: Christine de Pizan, Helisenne de Crenne, Marguerite de Navarre, and Louise Labe; in Italian: Vittoria Colonna, Laura Cereta, and Veronica Gambara.
All such claims take as foundation women s supposed low levels of literacy in this period: Si en determinados aspectos se ha superado la inicial tendencia a medir y cuantificar para determinar niveles de alfabetización [...], el tema de las mujeres sigue condenado al enjuiciamiento numérico como excusa de su no inclusión en los estudios.
(Graña 1999: 213) 3 To conclude that early women authors had no family support, that they were oblivious to one another, that they saw themselves as mere accidents, simply because we have few book inventories, wills and correspondence belonging to women authors seems too basic and unfair.
1 Most such studies do not even acknowledge, let alone account for, the considerable rise in the number of women publishing both in manuscript and print in Iberia and across a wide variety of literary genres and themes (from religion and poetry to prose fiction, history, philosophy, theatre, conduct books, even relaciones de sucesos, and panegyrics).
In his study of literature as a profession in the Golden Age Christoph Strosetzki (1997) includes only two female representatives.